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AMA Citation Guide: Reference List

Reference Format Examples

Nifty Tool:

This nifty tool will generate AMA citations from PMIDs, DOIs, and URLs.

Pretty slick, but be sure to double check the citation for accuracy!

General Guidelines

Authors & Editors:

  • Last name then first and middle initials (e.g., Porter CL)
  • Seven or more authors, list first three authors, then put “et al" (e.g., Smith RL, Brown CB, Williams AZ, et al.)
  • If the author(s) represent a group, add the group name after the authors (e.g., Almond D, Currie J, Herrmann M, National Bureau of Economic Research.)

Article Titles:

  • Titles of articles, chapters, web pages, and entries in reference works are set in sentence caps
  • Without quotation marks or italics
  • e.g., Maximizing children’s health: screening, anticipatory guidance, and counseling.

Book Titles:

  • Titles of books, volumes, reference works, reports & bulletins, theses & dissertations are formatted in heading caps
  • Set in italics
  • e.g., Migraine: Manifestations, Pathogenesis, and Management.

City, State:

  • Include the 2-letter abbreviation for the state with all US cities and Canadian provinces (e.g., Roanoke, VA:)
  • Add the country with all other cites (e.g., Paris, France:)
  • Do not list the state if it is part of the publisher's name


  • Always use the link to the reference that will take the reader directly to the source
  • Do not shorten the link, but use the entire string (e.g., Not