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Citation and style manuals

List of citation styles, corresponding online and print guides, and links to sites that provide examples.

Style manuals go beyond listing how to format a citation to a source. They establish standards for consistency in writing: grammar, punctuation, and layout. They discuss how to present tables and figures, how to format headings and page numbers, which words to capitalize or abbreviate, and what nomenclature to use in a field.

Consulting these aspects of a style guide before beginning to write can save time and lead to better communication.

Choosing a citation style

For assignments, the citation style is often determined by your instructor. For manuscripts you plan to submit, the style is often determined by the publisher or editor.

When you are allowed to choose a citation style, use these guidelines:

  • Review your cited sources. Is a common style used? 
  • What discipline is your document for?
    • Social sciences, psychology, education typically use APA
    • Humanities typically use MLA
    • Life sciences typically uses CSE
    • Medicine typically uses AMA
    • Communication typically uses AP
    • History uses Chicago or Turabian