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Anti-Racist Teaching Guide

A guide to complement the 2023 Anti-Racist Pedagogy Symposium

The beginnings of curriculum reform

In USA's educational system "the creation of universities was rooted in an anti-black ideology that benefitted from chattel slavery that built the early colleges in America." (Ash, A., 2020)

Curriculum reform in the USA and Britain began in the 1970's, when pedagogical theorists like Michael W. Apple began advocating for a significant revamp of teaching content.


Apple, M. W. (1979). Ideology and curriculum. Boston: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Ash, A. Hill, R., Risdon, S.N., & Jun, A. (2020). Anti-racism in higher education: A model for change. Race and Pedagogy Journal, 4(3), 1-35. Accessed 2/15/23 at

Kridel, C. (2003). Biblio-Revenance: Curriculum Theorizing: The Reconceptualists (1975) and Ideology and Curriculum (1979). JCT: Journal of Curriculum Theorizing (1057896X)19(3), 96–103.

Liyanage, M. Mapping the history of anti-racist curriculum work in tertiary education. Accessed 2/15/23 at