Becoming a Professional III: Using Veterinary Research
Citation Format

In-text citations

Veterinary Research uses numbers enclosed in brackets and listed just before the period in the sentence for in-text citations.

  • the first in-text citation is the first citation listed in the bibliography, regardless of the name of the first author in the publication.

  • the second in-text citation is the second citation listed in the bibliography, regardless of the name of the first author in the publication.

A statement made in the text may have one [1] or more than one [1-2] numeric referrals in the text, and a source may be used more than once (e.g. [1-2]  or [1,4,6-7], etc.). 

Bibliographic citation

For your assignment, be sure to follow the modified Veterinary Research bibliographic citation format (examples provided in the document below).  The citations must appear in the "Further Reading" section you are required to provide to your client as part of their letter.

As you are to use only scholarly research articles (original, review, or systematic review), or book chapters from scientific publications (e.g. textbooks published by Elsevier, Wiley, or Springer, manuals like Merck) there are only two citation styles you will need to be sure to follow:

  • Journal articles
  • Book Chapters/Entries

Instructions and examples for how these citations are to be formatted (both in-text and bibliographic) are included in the following document:


No more than one source can come from a non-peer-reviewed journal or academic/scientific textbook. 

  • If you include this type of source, make sure the source falls within these limitations:
    • This source must be made available through either a national veterinary organization’s or an accredited school/college of veterinary medicine’s website
    • This source cannot be a news brief. It must pertain directly to your topic by providing details that specifically addresses at least one of the aspects you need to cover in your letter
    • In the supporting evidence document, you must add one of the following to indicate which type of non-scholarly (peer-reviewed or academic text) source you used under “source type”
      • ____ information source from national veterinary association
      • ____ information source from accredited school/college of veterinary medicine

Journal abbreviations

Veterinary Research uses the journal abbreviations as listed in the National Library of Medicine (NLM) catalog. Search for the journal's title in:

(e.g. Veterinary Record) and in the list of results (particularly for those that retrieve multiple options for your title) look for the "NLM Title Abbreviation" and based on the citation style, add periods if necessary between the abbreviated words of the journal title.