IACUC, Animal Welfare, Literature Reviews: Home
The "3Rs" for Alternatives
REDUCE: minimize how many animals are used.
REFINE: use techniques/procedures that minimize distress and pain to animals.
REPLACE: substitute animal models with non-animal techniques or lower organisms.
Adapted from: Russel, WMS and RL Burch (1959). The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. Universities Federation of Animal Welfare: England, 238p.
Below is an overview of the required pieces of information listed under the "alternatives" literature search sections for the IACUC protocols at Virginia Tech:
- Names of the databases searched
- Keywords used and the number of hits
- Date(s) the search(es) were performed
- Years included in the search criteria
- Identification of any 3Rs that were found
- Justification if an alternative was found, but not used
See more information under the "Getting Started with Searching" tab
Key Resources to getting started
To find out more about 3Rs and locate additional resources available about alternatives:
- AWIC (Animal Welfare Information Center)
- ICCVAM (Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods)
- NICEATM (National Toxicology Program Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods)
- OLAW (Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare)
IACUC.org (Institutional Animal Care & Use Committee, national organization through the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science - AALAS)
- CCAC (Canadian Council on Animal Care)
- EURL EVCAM (European Union Reference Laboratory European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Method)
- DB-ALM (Database services on alternative methods to animal experiments / create a free account to search / search options directly under main banner)
Librarian Liaison to the IACUC
A little about what I can do for you
As the University Libraries' liaison to the IACUC, I am here to help you with adhering to the literature review searching protocol. Please contact me if you have any questions!
Additionally, I offer workshops on how to effectively search resources through PDN or by request.