REDUCE: minimize how many animals are used.
REFINE: use techniques/procedures that minimize distress and pain to animals.
REPLACE: substitute animal models with non-animal techniques or lower organisms.
Adapted from: Russel, WMS and RL Burch (1959). The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. Universities Federation of Animal Welfare: England, 238p.
Below is an overview of the required pieces of information listed under the "alternatives" literature search sections for the IACUC protocols at Virginia Tech:
See more information under the "Getting Started with Searching" tab
To find out more about 3Rs and locate additional resources available about alternatives:
IACUC.org (Institutional Animal Care & Use Committee, national organization through the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science - AALAS)
As the University Libraries' liaison to the IACUC, I am here to help you with adhering to the literature review searching protocol. Please contact me if you have any questions!
Additionally, I offer periodic workshops on how to effectively search resources (check the NLI website and look for emails from the IACUC)