IACUC, Animal Welfare, Literature Reviews: Recommended

Find information to help search for alternatives (aka the "3Rs") mandated by the Animal Welfare Act and required for IACUC protocols (Breeding, section 6; Research, section 7; Instruction, section 2g) for Virginia Tech. Use the tabs below to jump to any s

Librarian Liaison to the IACUC

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Kiri DeBose
Vet Med Library
245 Duck Pond Drive
Blacksburg, VA 24061

The "3Rs" for Alternatives

REDUCE: minimize how many animals are used.

REFINE: use techniques/procedures that minimize distress and pain to animals.

REPLACE: substitute animal models with non-animal techniques or lower organisms.

Adapted from: Russel, WMS and RL Burch (1959). The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. Universities Federation of Animal Welfare: England, 238p.

More info:
National Centre for the Replacement Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research

Key Databases

While the minimum requirement is to search two databases, there are a number of resources available, selecting the most appropriate can be a daunting task.  The databases listed immediately below are some of the primary "go-to" resources when searching for alternatives in scholarly research articles.

Additional databases

The next set of databases are listed to include other research areas that, depending on the scope of the project, may find more information.  Keep in mind this is not a complete list, other databases/resources may need to be identified.  Contact me if you would like assistance.