REDUCE: minimize how many animals are used.
REFINE: use techniques/procedures that minimize distress and pain to animals.
REPLACE: substitute animal models with non-animal techniques or lower organisms.
Adapted from: Russel, WMS and RL Burch (1959). The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. Universities Federation of Animal Welfare: England, 238p.
|Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (8th edition, 2011)|
|Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Research Animals (purchase print or download free online version, 1997)|
|Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching (PDF, 3rd edition, 2010)|
|The IACUC Handbook (print copy, 3rd edition (Vet Med Library), 2014)|